Role Tokens are used in crafting to produce items that influence villages when given to their inventory (by trading or via donation boxes).
Hue initially learns about them during the Word of Mouth quest, where Wes wants him to gather some Role Tokens to craft an Efficiency Plan. Other quests also require him to craft influencers, so it's a good idea to not throw or give them away.
Role tokens come in a few different forms. They are the proof of an order that a villager has received from their chief to carry out a certain task.
You'll find guards of villages carrying a Guard Token, gatherers will be carrying a Gatherer Token, traders a Trader Token and raiders a Raider Token.
They will drop the tokens, which you can use to craft interesting Influencers, when killed or when startled by a Sparkler Trap.